7. Mathewson, F.A.L., Brereton, D.C., Keltie, W.A. & Paul G.I.: The University of Manitoba Follow-up Study: A prospective investigation of cardiovascular disease. Part I. General description - mortality and incidence of coronary heart disease: Can Med Assoc J 92: 947-953, 1965.

A prospective study of cardiovascular disease was initiated in 1946 whereby 3983 healthy North American males, 91% under age 40, were subjected to periodic electrocardiograms and medical examinations between 1948 and 1963. The health of all but five of the 3773 survivors was known in 1963. There were 210 deaths: aircraft accidents accounted for 45%, cardiovascular disease 20%, cancer 11% and other causes 23%. The aggregate mortality closely resembled that of the Canadian Life Table 1955-57 (Male). Extra deaths were observed under age 40 owing to a high frequency of flying accidents. At older ages the mortality was lower than expected because congenital and chronic diseases were excluded at entry. One hundred and forty-three developed coronary heart disease. The case fatality rate was 31%. The incidence rate for coronary heart disease rose progressively from 0.277 per thousand per year for ages 25-34 to 26.5 at ages 60-69.